Module 03: 1917 — Did the War Cause a Revolution?

Evidence 13: Photograph of a Jewish Family Retreating From Warsaw

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German military advances and Russian chauvinism inflicted enormous suffering on civilian and refugee populations in the war zone. Jews, such as this family fleeing Warsaw in the summer of 1915, endured particular persecution.


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Stanley Washburn, The Russian Campaign: April to August, 1915 (London: Andrew Melrose, LTD., 1915), 313.

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