Module 03: 1917 — Did the War Cause a Revolution?

Evidence 14: Photograph of Refugees From Brest-Litovsk

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As also shown in the previous image, the civilian costs of war included refugees forced to leave their homes to escape the front lines of battle. Men, women, and children took to the roads as part of a massive dislocation of the population during the first year of the war. In light of the government's struggle to manage military operations successfully, public organizations, such as the Unions of Local Government, were formed to deal with civilian and refugee needs.


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Stanley Washburn, The Russian Campaign: April to August, 1915 (London: Andrew Melrose, LTD., 1915), 341.

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