Module 03: 1917 — Did the War Cause a Revolution?

Evidence 44: "Cossack: With whom are you? Us or them?"

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The following poster used common symbols of the revolutionary era, including the workers and peasants in red and the wealthy capitalist with his noble supporters, to ask the Russian soldier, in this case a member of the Cossack forces, to choose sides in the civil war that was already beginning even as the Revolution came to an end.


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Albert Rhys Williams, Through the Russian Revolution (New York: Boni and Liveright, 1921), 6. Also available online at

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