The first section below links to maps illustrating the spread of large cities from 1870 to 1914, during the period of rapid industrialization and urbanization. The four written accounts and four cartoons in the second section describe different perceptions of nature in the context of industrialization. In each case, consider how the author or artist uses nature as a means of depicting the relationship between humans and their environment. Finally, the cartoons in the last section use humor to explore how the coming of mechanized transportation shaped human attitudes toward a favorite animal, the horse. As you examine the cartoons, think about their intended meaning, the range of possible responses, and how they represent the changing relationship between humans and the natural environment.